A Guide for Identifying Some Variants of the Crux Penny of Æthelred II – W.M.D. Castle

In this article I bring together some of the distinguishing features of some Crux variants of Æthelred II. Some of these variants are hard to distinguish, so I have created a flow diagram that groups the coins by features that are shared in common. The article focuses on Crux, Early Transitional Crux, Late Transitional Crux, Small Crux and Intermediate Small Cross-Crux mules. This guide should aid people in identifying some of these coins. The descriptions of each coin type is not exhaustive, and variations will likely crop up that don’t always fit into these neat categories, but the key distinguishing features have been listed.

A vital clue in establishing Northumbrian chronology for early pennies – Tony Abramson

In late 2020, a find of an early Northumbria penny from Hayton, East Yorkshire, cast new light on the chronology of the northern royal silver coinage. The coin has a die link with an extremely rare type associated with the patrician king Aethelwald Moll, yet bears the named-moneyer reverse attributed to his son’s second reign three decades later. In this article, Tony Abramson suggests how this find may fit into the sequence.

Bedwyn to (or from?) Watchet: A Remarkable Instance of Die Alteration on a Penny of Edward the Confessor – David Guest, With comments by Stewart Lyon

Instances of pennies in the late Anglo-Saxon period with altered mint signatures are exceedingly rare. This note discusses a Radiate Small Cross type penny of Edward the Confessor of Watchet that was struck from a reverse die showing clear signs of alteration to the mint name. The author argues that the die had first been cut for use at Bedwyn and then altered for use at Watchet. Stewart Lyon was asked to comment on the paper and has kindly supplied an alternative reading.

A Rare Rune Combination on R8 Sceatta by Chris Timms.

I have interpreted the runes on the R8 Sceatta featured in this article as HHL. The runes HH appear to be ligate or bind. The rune graphs are discussed. Many different combination of runes were used on the obverse flans of the R series, EPA, GEPA, EA, EP, ER, RHY and SPI were the most common, ES is quite unusual. I have only observed EAP on one coin, presumably an error by a die cutter. The later Wigraed (R10) and Tilberht (R11) coins had their names in runes. I have only seen the combination of runes HHL on two coins I own and one more registered on the Early Medieval Corpus database at the Fitzwilliam. The symbols outside of the standard on the reverse of the “Angry Face” coins are also discussed.

Unusual Iconography on three R8 Sceatta – C Timms

This Blog article discusses the unusual Iconography of what I have classified as a variant of the R8 Series (R8 Type 16) Sceat. I comment upon the epigraphic content of both the obverse and reverse of the three coins featured. The shape of the head/face and other symbols on the obverse are compared to other R8 types, also the positioning of the runes is observed and compared to other R8 types. The very unusual content of symbols within the standard on the reverse is reviewed. The rarity of these three coins is commented upon.